Yes. If you kept the clue scroll after dying, you can simply continue as usual. If you lost the clue scroll, the number of steps you've completed is saved (https://www.reddit.com/r/runescape/comments/3oasg6/psa_clue_scrolls_save_your_progress_even_if_you/). The next time you get a clue (of the same difficulty) you'll be on the same step toward the casket (possibly a different clue, though).
Note that this only applies to RS3 (and DarkScape), since it was a change applied after the clue scroll update. It's possible that this also applies to OldSchool. Previously on OldSchool, there was a bug that made it so that after dropping a clue, the number of steps remaining were ADDED to the next clue scroll. This was presumably fixed soon after.