Yeah. After you leave Raven Rock and go near Vault 101 Amata contacts you via radio, asking for help. Then you can start a new side quest. I think you can only do this if you don't kill the Overseer in the beginning.
Edit by Hybridex: You can start the quest if you killed the Overseer, there will be a new overseer.
Edited by k4m1k4z3k1ng: The name of this side quest is "Trouble in Homefront" or something like that. And depending on your actions during this quest, this might be your last chance to re-enter Vault 101. So, anything you want to loot from there (like the Medicine Bobblehead, for instance) you better take it before leaving.