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Yes, there were gardens in Roman times. They were inspired by Greek gardens and were usually in the peristyles.

Ornamental horticulture became highly developed during the development of Roman civilisation

The Gardens of Lucullus at the edge of Rome introduced the Persian garden to Europe, around 60 BC.

The use of gardens expanded and gardens ultimately thrived in Ancient Rome.

Augustus constructed the Porticus Liviae, a public garden on Equitine Hill in Rome. Outside Rome, gardens tended to proliferate at centers of wealth.

Private Roman gardens were generally separated into three parts. The first, the xystus, was a terrace that served as an open air drawing room and connected to the home via a covered portico. The xystus overlooked the lower garden, or ambulation. The ambulatio consisted of a variety of flowers, trees, and other foliage and served as an ideal milieu for a leisurely stroll after a meal, some mild conversation, or other Roman recreation activities. The gestation was a shaded avenue where the master of a home could ride horseback or be carried by his slaves. It generally encircled the ambulation, or was constructed as a separate oval shaped space.

Gardens were not reserved for the extremely wealthy. Excavations in Pompeii show that gardens attaching to residences were scaled down to meet the space constraints of the home of the average Roman. Modified versions of Roman garden designs were adopted in Roman settlements in Africa, Gaul, and Britannia. As town houses were replaced by tall apartment buildings, these urban gardens were replaced by window boxes or rooftop gardens.

Roman garden designs were later adopted by Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, and even 20th Century landscape architects.

Includes CC-BY-SA content from Wikipedia's Roman gardens article (authors)

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