No, it's not because Cosmic boy altered time that Zod has been released.
Initially, the Orb was created by Jor-El to "control" Clark.
However, the Orb had altered in coloration, turning from a purple-black (Season 7) to a metallic-blue (Season 8); So we could think that the Orb may have changed... (new abilities...)
Tess is obviously delusional or brainwashed by the Orb. By destroying the black crystal that could allow Clark to trap Doomsday in the Phantom zone, she has become the savior of Kandor; That way Clark/Kal-El was able to fulfill the prophecy by fighting Doomsday (who is Faora & Zod's son) which is why "young" Zod (who was was trapped) released from the Orb. Often, in the episodes, magic objects (like blue crystal, black crystal, Orb...) are able to open portals
By saving Kandor, Tess has saved "young" Zod (but maybe also other Kryptonians like "young" Jor-El who we may see later...)
We also may have more details concerning the Orb in Season 9
Laurent - LLi