Islam is the religion followed by Muslims. The Quran is the scripture and foundation of Islam. Islam teaches and a Muslims believe in and worship one God without equals and the messengers sent by Him. Some of these messengers include Noah, Moses, Jesus, and His last and final messenger Muhammad among others (PBUT all).
There are six articles of faith in Islam:
1) Belief in God 2) Belief in His Angels 3) Belief in his revelations including the Torah, Gospel, and final revelation, the Quran 4) Belief in His prophets and messengers 5) Belief in the Day of Judgment 6) Belief in divine predestination which includes believe that God knows everything, God knows what has happened and what will happen, God has recorded all that has happened and all that will happen whatever God wills to happen happens, and whatever He wills not to happen does not happen, and God is the Creator of everything
There are five 'pillars' a Muslim acts on in their life. These include
1) The testimony of ones faith , i.e. "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the prophet of God. Believing this makes one a Muslim. 2) Five mandatory daily prayers 3) Mandatory charity for the poor and needy, approximately 2.5% of ones excess wealth above and beyond a minimum need 4) Mandatory Fasting during the 29-30 day month of Ramadan, if one is healthy and able to 5) Performing the pilgrimage to the house of God built by Abraham and Ishmael in Makkah once in ones lifetime if one is financially able to
The Quran refers to God as Allah. Allah is His proper name in Arabic which the Quran was revealed in and preserved in. There is only one Quran that all Muslims believe in, read, and memorize parts of. Allah is the same God worshiped by Arab Jews and Christians and the same name for God, ie. Allah, is used in Arabic versions of the Bible.
Islam means submission, submission to God's wills and laws. Every creation of God is considered a Muslim as is every new born child in Islam. Only mankind (and Jinn) were given the free will to believe in God, His oneness, and obey and worship Him, or not.
Islam is not a new religion. It is the same religion revealed by God through all of His messengers including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad (PBUT all). Islam teaches and Muslims believe in and worship one God and believe in all of His messengers. All of the past prophets, their followers, and anyone who believes in one God and His messengers is considered to be a Muslim in Islam. The Quran says (translation):
Say ye: "We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam)." [2:136]