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Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra'el, "the Land of Israel"), later called Palestine, and continues primarily as support for the modern state of Israel.
Zionism is partly based on strong historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i.e. up to 70 CE). The modern movement was mainly founded by secular Jews, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe. It is a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism. At first one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to the position of Jews in Europe, Zionism grew rapidly and, after the Holocaust, became the dominant Jewish political movement.
The political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat". The movement seeks to encourage Jewish migration to the Promised Land and was eventually successful in establishing Israel in 1948, as the homeland for the Jewish people. Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people.
About 40% of the world's Jews now live in Israel.[