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What led to new ideas at the end of the middle ages?

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At the end of the middle ages, people started to study the ancient times of the Romans and Greeks and study there art. In florence, Italy, the citizens started to get interested in Art and literature. During the middle ages, everyone was Christian, and under rule of the Church, the midevil people did not care about there life on Earth, they just cared about getting there reward they die (going to heaven). In the 1500's (start of the Renaissance in Florence), people started to realize that they want to make there life meaningful and have a good time on Earth, they still were christians, just wanted to make there life meaningful on Earth. People started to invent things, write books, paint, and learn more. People would study the works of the Ancient Romans and Greeks (Classical Period). The Church was getting angry. When people started to devote there life to learning, they started breaking away from the Church. They were questioning it. The Church said that the Earth was in the center in the universe and everything revoled around Earth, this theory is called geocentric. A named Nicoulas Copernicus, proved the Church wrong, and wrote a book on how the Sun was the center of the universe and the Earth revolved around it, this is a heleocentric theory. This made the Church and some PEOPLE very angry. They said this went against teaching of the Church. This theory opened many doors to the astronomy/science world. Copernicus died soon after he published his book. Another astronomer, Galileo, approved the telescope. He put a lense on the telescope so it made things like closer, and war generals would use it to spot the enemy. Galileo did study Copernicus's heleocentric theory. He proved that Copernicus's theory was write. He went out and told the people, the Church got mad, and sent him to trial in Rome, he then got arrested for going against church teachings and had to live the rest of his life in his house. Before Galileo died he said that he was a strong christian and wouldn't go against the church, but he wanted to prove what was scientifically correct.

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